Las Bardocas military airfield was built near Badajoz during the civil war. Owing to its geographical position, in an area wedged in between the rivers Guadiana and Gérova, the facilities could not be extended. This meant that a new aerodrome had to be built near Talavera La Real, 14 kilometres from Badajoz.

At the start of 1951, the runway began to be levelled, and by the summer that year, the control tower was finished. The runway was finished at the start of 1953, and in December the Spanish Air Force's Jet Training School was set up.

The air base improved its facilities, and on 12 September 1958 it opened to domestic air traffic. Talavera's aeronautical rights were established in June 1954, and then subsequently modified in 1968.

The first scheduled flight by the airline Iberia took place on 14 July 1976 oh the Madrid-Badajoz route, and the air base's facilities were used to serve passengers.

The problems which arose due to the joint use of the airport called for the obligatory construction of a separate apron and terminal building on the opposite side of the runway. The work began in 1981 and ended in 1983, although the Terminal was not used until 1990, when two daily flights were established to Madrid and two weekly ones to Barcelona.

Finally, in July 2010 the extension of the Terminal was completed, doubling its area to 4,400 square metres. The aircraft apron was also extended from 17,000 to 35,000 square metres.